Human Factors

Human Factors

Human Factors is a wide and complex domain. Its importance in aviation is indeniable, especially in today’s world. With technology and human-machine interaction more present than ever, it is essential to consider the role of human factors in the present and future operational environments. Special emphasis will need to be directed to the human factors issues that may influence the design, transition and in-service use of the future CNS/ATM systems.

Human Factors also play a significant role in improving safety in aviation, by making States and organisations more aware and responsive to the importance of the role of the human in civil aviation operations in general, through the provision of practical human factors material and measures developed on the basis of experience (ICAO, 2020). IFATCA has been at the forefront of these initatives, as it can be seen by the numerous policies the Federation has developed on the topic over the years.

 

A DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS

According to Doc 9683 (ICAO, 1998), Human Factors has to be clearly defined because these words can easily be misued in common language and are also sometimes applied to any factor related to humans. The human element is the most flexible, adaptable and valuable part of the aviation system, but it is also the most vulnerable to influences which can adversely affect its performance. Throughout the years, some three out of four accidents have resulted from less than optimum human performance. This has commonly been classified as human error.

However, the term “human error” is of no help in accident prevention because although it may indicate WHERE in the system a breakdown occurs, it provides no guidance as to WHY it occurs. An error attributed to humans in the system may have been design-induced or stimulated by inadequate training, badly designed procedures or the poor concept or layout of checklists or manuals. Further, using the term “human error” can have consequences, such as hiding (voluntarily or not) the underlying factors which must be identified, if accidents are to be prevented.

Contemporary safety-thinking argues that there are many possible starting points and angles that can be used to examinate human factors, such as the linear and the systemic approaches to safety. For more information on these two models, please refer to the pages proposed below.

According to ICAO:

“an understanding of the predictable human capabilities and limitations and the application of this understanding are the primary concerns of Human Factors. Human Factors has been progressively developed, refined and institutionalized since the end of the last century, and is now backed by a vast store of knowledge which can be used by those concerned with enhancing the safety of the complex system which is today’s civil aviation.”

 

What falls under Human Factors?

As said previously, the domain of Human Factors is vast. As regards air traffic control, it encompasses inter alia the following aspects:

  • Human Factors management and organization;
  • Human Factors issues in the development and implementation of Communications Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems;
  • Ergonomics;
  • Human Factors within systems;
  • Automation in air traffic control;
  • Selection and training of air traffic controllers;
  • The human element  and its specific attributes.

To illustrate the complexity of Human Factors, it can be useful to use a model to facilitate the understanding. An easy and practical model was developed by Edwards in 1972, later on modified by Hawkins in 1975, with a diagram to illustrate the model. The SHEL conceptual model uses blocks to represent the different components of Human Factors. The model can then be built up one block at a time, with a pictorial impression being
given of the need for matching the components (the edges of the blocks are embedded within each other, as seen below). The name SHEL is derived from the initial letters of its components:

  • Software,
  • Hardware,
  • Environment,
  • Liveware.

Where the Liveware refers to the human, the hardware refers to the machine, the software refers to either the procedures, the symbology, etc., and the environment refers to the situation in which the Liveware/ Software/ Hardware system must function. This building block diagram does not cover the interfaces which are outside Human Factors (hardware-hardware; hardware-environment; software-hardware) and is only intended as a basic aid to understanding Human Factors.


For more information, visit one of the following WIKIFATCA pages:

Human Factors 118

  1. AAS 1.13 DETERMINING OPERATIONS READINESS OF NEW ATM SYSTEMS
  2. AAS 1.20 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING IN ATC
  3. ADME 2.14 REMOTE AND VIRTUAL TOWER
  4. ADME 2.16 USE OF AERODROME CONTROL FREQUENCY FOR COMMUNICATIONS OF VEHICLE DRIVERS
  5. Ageing Air Traffic Controllers: Consequences on Job Performance
  6. Airport Infrastructure Development
  7. ANSP Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  8. Aptitude Testing for Air Traffic Controllers; Development of Aptitude Tests for ATCOs
  9. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in ATC
  10. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in ATC
  11. Artificial Intelligence Development in ATM and Legal Issues
  12. Artificial Intelligence Development in ATM and Legal Issues
  13. ATS 3.40 MOVING TO A NEW FACILITY
  14. ATS 3.46 SECTORLESS ATM
  15. Automation and Human Factors
  16. Automation and the ATCO – Human Factors Consideration
  17. CISM Programmes Throughout IFATCA Member Associations
  18. Clarification of Sector Manning Principles
  19. Co-operative Separation
  20. Cognitive Processes in Air Traffic Control
  21. Complexity of Multiple Delay Absorption Programmes
  22. Crisis Management
  23. Critical Incident Stress Management – Update of IFATCA Policy on Stress
  24. Determining And Result Of Inadequate Staffing
  25. Determining Operations Readiness of Automated ATM Systems
  26. Develop Policy on System Defences During Planned System Degradation
  27. Digitising Flight Progress Strip Displays
  28. Display of GNSS Status to ATC
  29. Distractions at Workplace
  30. Dynamic and Flexible ATS Route Systems
  31. Elements of FRMS Model
  32. Evaluating Team Resource Management Implementation within ATC and to Define the Practice for IFATCA
  33. Extra Duty
  34. Fatigue in ATC
  35. Fatigue Management in Air Traffic Control
  36. Fatigue Risk Management Systems
  37. Fatigue Risk Management Systems
  38. Free Flight
  39. Future ATM Systems of the Next Century
  40. General Considerations on the Implact of U-Space Dynamic Airspace Reconfiguration on ATS Units
  41. HF Considerations when Operating Multiple Operational Positions/Sectors
  42. Human Factor Considerations on “New Working Methods”
  43. Human Factors and Technicalities in a Multi-Sector Planner Environment
  44. Human Factors in Accident and Incident Investigation
  45. Human Factors Integration in New ATM Systems
  46. IFATCA Vision Document – Update Human Factors
  47. Implementation TRM in ATC
  48. Information Overload in ATC
  49. Investigate Minimum Safe Altitude Warning Systems (MSAW)
  50. Investigate Potential Applications of ADS-B
  51. Investigate Remote Aerodrome Control Concepts
  52. Investigate Runway Incursions
  53. Investigate the Use and Impact of “Electronic Means Complementing Visual Observation in Tower Control” on the ATCO
  54. Management of Mixed Mode Operations
  55. MED 8.2.4 FATIGUE IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
  56. MED 8.2.9 VIGILANCE DURING OPS SHIFTS
  57. Moving to a New Facility
  58. Night Shift Paralysis in Air Traffic Control
  59. Ocular Disease and Ocular Fatigue Due to the Working Environment in ATC
  60. Operating two Different Air Traffic Control Ratings During the Same Operational Shift
  61. Performance Indicators in Context
  62. Performance Measurement in ATC
  63. Policy review of WC10.3.2 Work and Rest Scheme
  64. Position Paper on Remotely Operated Towers
  65. Presentation of ADS Data to the Controller
  66. Remote Control Towers
  67. Report of the Joint Cognitive Human Machine System Group (JCHMS)
  68. Report of the Remote Tower Standing Committee (ROSC)
  69. Rescinding Resolution C14 from Costa Rica Conference
  70. Rescinding Resolution C14 From Costa Rica Conference
  71. Review IFATCA Technical and Professional Manual on Technical Policy Statements related to Mixed Mode Operations
  72. Review Issues Regarding ATC Systems Capability to Monitor Relevant Controller Intervention Buffer (CIB) Parameters
  73. Review of Human Factor Aspects of Social and Labour Aspects, Hours of Work and Retirement and Pension
  74. Review of IFATCA Automation Policy
  75. Review of IFATCA Policy
  76. Review of MED (Medical Matters) – Professional Policy of the TPM
  77. Review of Policy: Single Person Operations in ATC (SPO)
  78. Review of Single Person Operations Policy and Four Eyes Principle
  79. Review of WC (Working Conditions) – Professional Policy of the TPM
  80. Review Policy on CCTV
  81. Review Policy on Mixed Mode Operations
  82. Review Policy on Visual Observation in a Control Tower Environment
  83. Review Policy on Visual Observation, Aerodrome Control Service Concepts and CCTV
  84. Screen Design Process
  85. Sectorless ATM
  86. Sectorless ATM
  87. Single Person Operations – Four Eyes Principle (4EP)
  88. Single Person Operations in ATC
  89. Stress in Air Traffic Control
  90. Study Eurocontrol Human Factors Case
  91. Study Operations in a Paper Stripless Environment
  92. Study Remote Towers Concept
  93. Study Remote/Virtual TWR from the Professional, Procedural and HF View
  94. Study the Virtual Tower Concept
  95. Surveillance Applications Policy – Review Policy on ADS
  96. Team Resource Management
  97. Team Resource Management
  98. Terms of Reference – SC4 Human and Environmental Factors in ATC
  99. The “Free Flight Concept” – Human Factors Considerations
  100. The Ageing Controller
  101. The Fountain of Wellbeing
  102. The Use of Aerodrome Control Frequency for Communications of Vehicle Drivers
  103. The Use of Safety Nets in ATM
  104. Transfer of Control Functions to Pilots (Legal Aspects)
  105. Transfer of Separation Functions to Pilots – Human Factors Aspects
  106. Vigilance During OPS Shift
  107. Virtual Centres – Review ATS 3.15 Functional Blocks of Airspace
  108. Vision for the Human in the Future ATM System
  109. WC 10.1.6 SINGLE / LONE PERSON OPERATIONS (SPO)
  110. WC 10.1.7 FOUR EYES PRINCIPLE (4EP)
  111. WC 10.2.10 SHORT TERM CONFLICT ALERT (STCA): HUMAN FACTORS / LEGAL ASPECTS
  112. WC 10.2.3 WORKING ENVIRONMENTS
  113. WC 10.2.4 ATC SYSTEMS
  114. WC 10.2.5 AUTOMATION / HUMAN FACTORS
  115. WC 10.2.9 CO-OPERATIVE SEPARATION
  116. WC 10.3.5 EXTRA DUTY
  117. WC 10.7.6 COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN ATC
  118. WC 10.7.8 USE OF MULTIPLE ATCO RATINGS

Last Update: September 19, 2020  

October 27, 2019   1998   superman    WIKI  

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